Diseases

Misdiagnosing is easy to do, be sure of the sickness before you treat.

  Bacterial Diseases

Dropsy
Also known as Malawi bloat

Caused by: viral and/or bacterial infections, as well as metabolic and nutritional disorders

Symptoms: protruding scales and swollen body, causing a "pinecone-like" appearance.

Occurrences: Dropsy can occur in individuals in a healthy environment or fish which are in otherwise poor condition.

Treatment/Control: If possible, separate affected individuals in a quarantine tank. Treat with MelaFix or PimaFix. If treatment seems ineffective, treat with Furan 2 or Triple Sulfa.

Fin and Tail Rot

Caused by: various bacteria such as Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, and myxobacteria.

Symptoms: ragged or split fins, frequently white around the edges.

Occurrences: Fin and tail
rot can arise from importation, rough handling, fighting, and fin nipping – overcrowding, poor nutrition, and bad water conditions can also contribute.

Treatment/Control: treat affected fish with MelaFix – with prompt treatment, damaged tissue and fins will grow back.

Pop-eye

Caused by: bacterial infection, parasite infestation, metabolic disorders, and poor water quality.

Symptoms: one or both eyes swell and project from the head. In severe cases, the eye can burst from the socket.

Occurrences: Pop-eye typically affects only one or two fish in an aquarium or pond, and is not considered to be infectious.

Treatment/Control: affected fish can be treated with MelaFix or PimaFix.

Hemorrhagic septicemia

Caused by: various bacteria such as Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, or Streptococcus.

Symptoms: bloody/red streaks in the fish’s body and fins.

Occurrences: Outbreaks characteristically affect fish in poor condition due to stress, overcrowding, or rough handling.

Treatment/Control: affected fish can be treated with anti-bacterial MelaFix or PimaFix.

Tuberculosis

Caused by: various bacteria such as Mycobacterium or Nocardia.

Symptoms: loss of appetite, pale and emaciated appearance.

Secondary symptoms: pop-eye, fin rot, body ulcers, and lethargic behavior.

Occurrences: This disease is passed from fish to fish by feeding on infected material. Prevent transmission of TB by removing all dead and dying fish.

Treatment/Control: affected fish can be treated with anti-bacterial MelaFix or PimaFix.

   
  Fungal Diseases

Mouth Fungus/Cotton-wool Disease

Caused by: by the Flexibacter bacterium.

Symptoms: hazy-white marks can be seen on the body, fins, and mouth of the fish at the onset of the disease. Cotton- or wool-like tufts appear in the mouth area, and most fish lose their appetite and appear quite thin.

Occurrences: This disease is common in newly imported freshwater fish.
Overstocking or a sudden change in water conditions can also trigger it.

Treatment/Control: affected fish can be treated with PimaFix or Fungus Cure.

Fish Fungus

Caused by: Saprolegnia and Achyla.

Symptoms: White, brown, or gray cotton-like growths on the fins or skin of brackish and freshwater fish.

Occurrences: Fungal spores and fungi are common in aquaria, especially where there decaying organic matter can be found. Fungus can gain a foothold when the slime coating of the fish is damaged through rough handling or fighting. It can also invade the wounds left by other diseases.

Treatment/Control: affected fish can be treated with PimaFix or Fungus Cure.

   
  Viral Diseases

Dropsy
also known as Malawi bloat

Caused by: viral and/or bacterial infections, as well as metabolic and nutritional disorders

Symptoms: protruding scales and swollen body, causing a "pinecone-like" appearance.

Occurrences: Dropsy can occur in individuals in a healthy environment or fish which are in otherwise poor condition.

Treatment/Control: If possible, separate affected individuals in a quarantine tank. Treat with MelaFix or PimaFix. If treatment seems ineffective, treat with Furan 2 or Triple Sulfa.

Fish Pox

Caused by: viral infections.

Symptoms: Growths that are white, gray, or pink appear on the skin or fins. These lumps have a waxy appearance.

Occurrences: Fish pox mostly affects coldwater aquarium and pond fish, especially koi. The disease sometimes appears then subsides, rarely causing any fish loss.

Treatment/Control: There is no reliable treatment for fish pox. Raising the temperature by 9-18°F can often eliminate the problem temporarily. It is not overly infectious, so there should be little cause for concern.

Lymphocystis

Caused by: viral infections.

Symptoms: cauliflower-like growths on the skin and fins. It usually starts as a few small white cysts, which grow over time.

Occurrences: Lymphocystis can be transferred to other fish through abrasions on the skin. The disease typically occurs in marine and brackish-water fish, but can occur in freshwater species as well.

Treatment/Control: there is no effective treatment for growths like this – they can be surgically removed, yet will sometimes grow back.

   
  Parasitic Infections

Lernaea
also known as Anchor Worm

Caused by: the copepod parasite Lernaea.

Symptoms: These parasites are elongated with two egg sacs at the posterior end. They usually embed themselves with hook-like anchors in the body wall of the fish, and a raised ulcer can develop where it attaches.

Occurrences: Lernaea most often occurs on newly imported fish, and is more problematic in ponds during the summer than in aquariums. They may also overwinter as a female parasite on the fish or as eggs.

Treatment/Control: treat outbreaks of Lernaea with Pond Care Dimilin, which effectively interrupts the parasite's life cycle and reproductive processes.

 

Argulus
also known as Fish Lice

Caused by: the parasitic crustacean Argulus.

Symptoms: Fish lice are flat,
disc-shaped parasites which attach themselves to fish with small suckers. They feed on blood and tissue fluids by piercing the skin with sharp mouthparts.

Occurrences: Argulus, like Lernaea, are more problematic in ponds during the summer than in aquariums. They can occur in aquaria, usually coming in on imported fish.

Treatment/Control: treat outbreaks of Argulus with General Cure.

Gill maggots

Caused by: the parasite Ergasilus.

Symptoms: Gill maggots can be found attached to the gills, gill covers, and inside the mouth. The parasitic crustacean can cause severe gill damage, and even death in heavy infestations.

Occurrences: Ergasilus, like Argulus, are more problematic in ponds during the summer than in aquariums. They can occur in aquaria, usually coming in on imported fish.

Treatment/Control: treat outbreaks of Ergasilus with General Cure.

Gill flukes

Caused by: monogenetic flukes, usually Dactylogyrus.

Symptoms: Rapid breathing, loss of appetite, discolored gill filaments, and swollen gills. Infected fish may also gasp at the water surface or lay at the bottom.

Occurrences: Gill flukes thrive in overcrowded, poorly maintained environments. They can do major damage to tissue, creating an opportunity for secondary bacterial and fungal infections to gain a foothold.

Treatment/Control: outbreaks of gill flukes can be treated with copper- or formalin-based remedies. Great care should be taken, as these treatments can be very harmful to invertebrates and even some fish.

HLLE
also known as Head and Lateral Line Erosion or Hole-in-the-head.

Caused by: Hexamita, diet, and/or environment - the true cause of this disease is highly debated.

Symptoms: small pits or holes develop in the sensory regions of the head and body, especially along the lateral line.

Occurrences: Hexamita is often found as a low-level infection in the intestines of the fish, which when combined with poor environmental conditions, may cause the parasite to multiply and lead to the development of erosions commonly seen in a variety of fish.
Outbreaks could also be related to a poor diet, vitamin deficiencies, and environmental factors.

Treatment/Control: Fish exhibiting HLLE can be treated with General Cure. Feeding a varied, nutritious diet can contribute to healing and positively affect overall fish health.

Leeches

Caused by: Piscicola geometra and a variety of other leeches.

Symptoms: Leeches are firmly attached to the skin, fins, and sometimes gills. Fish may appear thin and behave listlessly. Small, reddened areas on the skin and fins can indicate previous points of attachment.

Occurrences: Leeches are usually introduced to ponds or aquariums with the addition of new fish, plants or live food.

Treatment/Control: Leeches have been removed from pond fish by placing the fish in a 3% salt bath for 15-30 minutes.
*Note: this treatment can be very stressful to the fish, and should only be attempted with the guidance of a veterinarian.

Neon Tetra disease

Caused by: infection due to the parasite Pleistophora.

Symptoms: Heavily infected fish lose color (esp. the red stripe in Neon Tetras), have curvature of the spine, fin rot, and emaciation. Tetras seem especially susceptible to this infection, although other fishes can be affected as well.

Occurrences: These parasites pass easily from fish to fish. The disease seems to be triggered by poor water conditions, and secondary infections are very common.

Treatment/Control: treat infected fish with Furan 2 or General Cure

Nodular diseases

Caused by: various parasites, such as Ichthyosporidium, Nosema, Myxobolus, and Henneguya, and the fungus Dermocystidium.

Symptoms: Smooth yellowish-white cysts on the body, fins, gills, internal organs, or in muscle. They can vary in size from a few mm to a centimeter across, and can be spherical, oval, or irregular in shape. Each cyst contains thousands of parasitic spores.

Occurrences: These parasites do little harm, unless heavily infested in the gills or on smaller fish.

Treatment/Control: unfortunately, there is no reliable treatment for this type of disease.

Ich

also known as Ichthyophthirius or "ick".

Caused by: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in freshwater tanks and Cryptocaryon irritans in saltwater systems.

Symptoms: Small white specks on the skin, fins, and gills. Fish may scratch against gravel and rocks.

Occurrences: Mature parasites that have been feeding on a fish's tissues fall away from the fish. They drop to the substrate and divide many times, eventually producing hundreds of infective stages. These "swarmers" swim off to find a host.

Treatment/Control: treat infected aquaria with Super Ick Cure – increasing the water temperature to 85°F will help to accelerate the parasite’s life cycle.

Skin sliminess

Caused by: various external protozoan parasites and monogenetic flukes.

Symptoms: A whitish film of excess mucus develops on the body. Some fish will lie at the bottom and scratch themselves on rocks.

Occurrences: This disease mainly occurs in fish that are in poor condition due to overcrowding, insufficient nutrition, or bad water quality.

Treatment/Control: treat infected aquaria with General Cure.

Velvet

Caused by: dinoflagellates, which are single-celled organisms.
Saltwater: Amyloodinium
Freshwater: Oodinium

Symptoms: grayish-yellow coating on the skin and fins. Infected fish may scratch on gravel and rocks and exhibit rapid gill movements. This disease is easily confused with Ich, but in this case fish appear to be sprinkled with "gold dust" rather than white spots.

Occurrences: Parasites move from fish to fish as flagellated (tailed) spores – they can live away from the fish for as long as several days.

Treatment/Control: treat infected aquaria with General Cure.

Guppy disease

Caused by: Tetrahymena, a tiny ciliate protozoan

Symptoms: small white spots, skin loss, protruding scales, and abnormal swimming behavior.

Occurrences: This disease occurs in poorly maintained environments with excess organic debris and inadequate nutrition for the fish.

Treatment/Control: treat infected aquaria with Super Ick Cure.

Black spot

Caused by: larval stages of digenetic fluke parasites, such as Clinostomum, Posthodiplostomum, and Diplostomum.

Symptoms: small black cysts appear on the skin – they contain the larval parasite.

Occurrences: This disease occurs in newly imported fish and occasionally in pond fish. The parasite is most often transmitted to fish by larvae leaving an infected aquatic snail.

Treatment/Control: treatment is rarely necessary, and in most cases, low-level infestations of black spot will disappear over time.

Source: http://aquariumpharm.com/disease.html

 

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